Endnotes

1 City of Houston, Texas. Comprehensive Annual Financial Report For the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2011. Ronald C. Green, City Controller.

2 Window on State Government. Susan Combs: Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts. Texas in Focus: Gulf Coast Region. Available at http://www.window.state.tx.us/specialrpt/tif/gulf/healthcare.php. Accessed April 2012.

3 The Lewin Group. Prepared for the American Medical Association. The State-Level Economic Impact of Office-Based Physicians. February 2011.

4 Texas Workforce Solutions. Industry Focus: Selecting Top Industries. Available at http://www.texasindustryprofiles.com/apps/led/IndustryFocus.asp Accessed March 2012.

5 The Lewin Group. Prepared for the American Medical Association. The State-Level Economic Impact of Office-Based Physicians. February 2011.

6 Panhandle Area Health Education Center. Healthcare and Economic Development: Community Primary Care Physician Workforce Analysis For Hemphill County. September 2009.

7 Elliott, V.S. Office-based doctors support 4 million jobs. AMED News April 2011.

8  Dennard, Paige. The Doctor Is In: Economic Development Strategies in Health Care. December 2011.

9 Texas State Data Center. Population Projections by Migration Scenario for Texas Counties and Regions. Available at http://idserportal.utsa.edu/sdc/projections/default.aspx. Accessed March 2012.

10 Centers for Disease Control and  Prevention, CDC. Chronic disease notes and  reports: special focus. Healthy Aging  1999;12:3.

11 Texas State Data Center, 2010 Census Data. Available at http://txsdc.utsa.edu/Data/TPEPP/Estimates/Index.aspx. Accessed March 2012.

12 Texas Diabetes: The Newsletter of the Texas Diabetes Council. Number of Texans with Diabetes Projected to Quadruple by 2040. Fall 2010-Winter 2011.

13 Texas Medical Board. 2011. Available at http://www.tmb.state.tx.us/. Accessed April 2012.

14 Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. Texas Higher Education Data. December 2011. Available at http://www.txhighereddata.org/. Accessed April 2012.

15 Texas Medical Association. Survey of Texas Medical Schools. 2011.

16 National Resident Matching Program. Results and Data: 2011 Residency Match. April 2011. Available at http://www.nrmp.org/data/resultsanddata2011.pdf. Accessed April 2012.

17 Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. Texas Higher Education Data. December 2011. Available at http://www.txhighereddata.org/. Accessed April 2012.

18 Association of American Medical Colleges. The Economic Impact of AAMC Medical Schools and Teaching Hospitals. http://www.aamc.org/economicimpact.

19 Texas Medical Association. Survey of Texas Medical Schools. 2011.

20 Texas State Data Center. Texas Population Estimates. Available at http://txsdc.utsa.edu. Accessed March 2012.

21 Department of State Health Services. Highlights: The Supply of Primary Care Physicians in Texas — 2005. August 2006.

22  ibid.

23 Texas Department of State Health Services. Health Professions Resource Center. Supply and Distribution Tables for State-Licensed Health Professions in Texas. Available at http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/chs/hprc/health.shtm. Accessed February 2012.

24 AMA policy E-10.015 (I, II, VI, VIII). Issued December 2001, based on the report, “The Patient-Physician Relationship,” adopted June 2001.

25  Cohen, Steven and Yu, William. Agency for HealthCare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Statistical Brief #354: The Concentration and Persistence in the Level of Health. Expenditures over Time: Estimates for the U.S. Population, 2008-2009.January 2012.

26  Kaye, Neva et al. The Commonwealth Fund. Building Medical Homes: Lessons From Eight States with Emerging Programs. December 2011.

27  Cadet, Justine. HIMSS/CHIME: If you’re not on the patient-centered medical home train, you’re late! Cardiovascular Business February 2012.

28 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. National Health Expenditures: 2007 Highlights. Available at https://www.cms. gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-
and-Reports/NationalHealthExpendData/index.html?redirect=/ NationalHealthExpendData/. Accessed April 2012. 

28A Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. National Health Expenditures: 2007 Highlights. Available at https://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/NationalHealthExpendData/index.html?redirect=/NationalHealthExpendData/. Accessed April 2012.

29 Texas Medical Association. TMA Survey Electronic Medical Records Report Fall 2009. 2009.

30 ibid.

31 Xerox  Corporation. Only  26 Percent of Americans Want  Electronic Medical Records, Says Xerox  Survey. July 31, 2012. 

32 Texas Medical Association. EHR Comparison Tool:  Pricing Section. September 2011.

33 Texas Health and  Human Services Commission. Potentially Preventable Readmissions in the  Texas Medicaid Population, Fiscal Year 2010. January 2012.

34 ibid

35 National Institute of Mental Health. Any disorder among adults. Available from  http://www.nimh.nih.gov/statistics/1ANYDIS_Adult. shtml. Access  April 2012.

36 Merikangas KR, He J, et al., Lifetime  prevalence of mental disorders in U.S. adolescents: Results from  the  National Comorbidity Study, supplement (NCS-A), Journal of the  American Academy of Child  and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2010 Oct;49(10):980-9.

37 Center for Disease Control. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. 2006 Survey Data. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/brfss/technical_infodata/surveydata/2006.htm. Accessed April 2012.

38 Center for Disease Control. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. 2007 Survey Data. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/brfss/technical_infodata/surveydata/2007.htm. Accessed April 2012.

39 Texas Education Agency. Youth Behavior Survey. 2009. Available at http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=2147486120. Accessed April 2012.

40 Texas Department of State Health Services. Center for Health Statistics. Table 17: Five Leading Causes of Death by Sex and Age Texas Residents, 2008. Available at http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/chs/vstat/latest/t17.shtm. Accessed April 2012. 

41 Texas Department of State Health Services. Substance Abuse Trends in Texas: June 2011. Available from http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/sa/recentresearchstudies.shtm. Accessed April 2012. 

42 Department of State Health Services. Texas Drug Facts Among Youth, 2010. Available from http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CEEQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dshs.state.tx.us%2FWorkArea%2Flinkit.aspx%3FLinkIdentifier%3Did%26ItemID%3D8589952460&ei=em-MT9GQHPH22AWRvIC_CQ&usg=AFQjCNHdN-M_cXoihruRh8KfrA_ENUdlOw&sig2=7F8M1QsmtjLqCrehE0jDtg. Access April 2012. 

43 Alcohol Alert. Texas Drunk Driving Statistics. Available at http://www.alcoholalert.com/drunk-driving-statistics-texas.html. Accessed April 2012. 

44 Texas Department of State Health Services. Decision Support Unit. Another Look at Mental Illness and Criminal Justice Involvement in Texas: Correlates and Costs. 2010. 

45 National Alliance on Mental Illness of Texas. Helping Texas Families and Saving Taxpayer Dollars. Available at http://www.namitexas.org/homecontent/Help_Families_Save_Tax_Dollars_v2.pdf Accessed April 2012 

46 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Mental Health: Research Findings, Program Brief 2006. Available at http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDYQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ahrq.gov%2Fresearch%2Fmentalhth.pdf&ei=a3GMT-TBBsHk2AXGtKDrCQ&usg=AFQjCNF8pgKaI4n7zUJmzLhE3TqJNlhMdg&sig2=Sojsxy_jCB2hrhAgpj6W-Q. Accessed April 2012. 

47 The Perryman Group. Costs, Consequences and Cures!!! An Assessment of the Impact of Severe Mental Health and Substance Abuse Disorders on Business Activity in Texas and the Anticipated Economic and Fiscal Return on Investment in Expanded Mental Health Services. May 2009.  

48 Brown, E. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Health Care Expenditures for Adults Ages 18-64 with a Mental Health or Substance Abuse Related Expense 2007 versus 1997. Statistical Brief #319. March 2011. 

49 Hargrave, George et al. EAP Treatment Impact on Presenteeism and Absenteeism: Implications for Return on Investment . Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health. 2008. Oct 23(3):283-293. 

50 Honberg R., Diehl, S., et al. National Alliance on Mental Illness. State Mental Health Cuts: A National Crisis. March 2011.  

51 Klein, Philip. The Empress of Obamacare. June 2010. The American Spectator. 

52 Department of Justice and the Federal Trade Commission. Improving Health Care: A Dose of Competition. July 2004.  

53 Berenson, Robert A. Separating Fact From Fiction: A New Role For Health Affairs. Health Affairs. November 2007, 26(6):1528-1530.

54 United States  Government Accountability Office. Report to Congressional Committees. Electronic Prescribing: CMS Should Address Inconsistencies in Its Two  Incentive Programs That  Encourage the  Use of Health Information Technology. February 2011. GAO-11-159. 

55 The Lewin Group. Prepared for the American Medical Association. The Economic Impact of Office-Based Physicians in Maryland. January 2011. Available at http://www.bizjournals.com/baltimore/pdf/Maryland-physicians-report.pdf. Accessed April 2012.

56 The Lewin Group. Prepared for the American Medical Association. The State-Level Economic Impact of Office-Based Physicians. February 2011.

57 BeSaw, Larry. ICD-10 Conversion. Texas Medicine. February 2012. 108(2):24.

58 Nachimson Advisors. The Impact of Implementing ICD‐10 on Physician Practices and Clinical Laboratories. A Report to the ICD10 Coalition. October 2008.

59 Texas Medical Association. Legislative Brief: Taxes. 2011. Available at http://www.texmed.org/Template.aspx?id=19667. Accessed April 2012.

60 Texas Medical Association. TMA Supports Physician Hospital Ownership. Sept. 10, 2010. 

61 Schneider, John and Decker, Christopher. Health Economics Consulting Group. The Economic Impact of Physician-Owned Hospitals in Eight States. January 2009.

62 Bureau of Disease, Injury and Tobacco Prevention. Texas Department of Health. Cardiovascular Disease in Texas: A State Plan with Disease Indicators and Strategies for Action. Available at http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=5&ved=0CD8QFjAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dshs.state.tx.us%2Fwellness%2Fpdf%2Fcvdrpt.pdf&ei=7eaQT7zEF8bF2QXln_n8BA&usg=AFQjCNFjWAKPCsk4H7TVGL-Wr7-S2PI3Qg&sig2=BDE-FO0g-gyZl4oc9HRy6g. Accessed April 2012.

63 Texas Department of State Health Services. Mental Health & Substance Abuse Division. Tobacco Prevention & Control Strategic Plan for 2008-2013. July 2007.

64 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy. June 2010.

65 Texas DSHS communication; average for 2004-06.

66 Based on data provided by Texas DSHS for 2007: HHSC average Medicaid birth cost.

67 The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. State Health Facts. Texas: Childhood Immunizations. 2010. Available at http://www.statehealthfacts.org/profileind.jsp?cat=2&sub=15&rgn=45. Accessed April 2012.

68 Zhou F. Updated economic evaluation of the routine childhood immunization schedule in the United States. Presented at the 45th National Immunization Conference. Washington, DC; March 28--31, 2011.

69 Rapoport, Ross. Cox News Service. CDC: Immunizations High But Shot In Arm Still Needed August 2003.

70  The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. State Health Facts: Texas. Health Status. 2010. Available at http://www.statehealthfacts.org/profileind.jsp?cat=2&rgn=45. Accessed April 2012.

71  Finkelstein, Eric et al. Annual Medical Spending Attributable To Obesity: Payer-And Service-Specific Estimates. Health Affairs, 28, no.5 (2009):w822-w831.

72  Center for Disease Control. Physical Inactivity and Unhealthy Diet Behaviors and Academic Achievement.

73  Arons, Abagail. Childhood Obesity In Texas: The Costs, The Policies, and a Framework for the Future. January 2011.

74 Childhood Obesity in Austin, Texas. Available at http://www.myoverweightchild.com/austinobesity.html. Accessed April 2012.

75  American Academy of Pediatrics. Prevention and  Treatment of Child Overweight and  Obesity. Policy  Opportunities Tool.  Available at http://www2.aap.org/obesity/matrix_1.html. Accessed September 2012.

76  Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids. The Toll of Tobacco in Texas. March 2012.

77 AHIP. Making the Business Case For Smoking Cessation. Available at http://www.businesscaseroi.org/roi/default.aspx. Accessed April 2012.

78 Texas Department of State Health Services. Fact: Tobacco Use Is A Tremendous Burden To All Texans. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCMQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dshs.state.tx.us%2Ftobacco%2Fpdf%2FFactburdn.pdf&ei=GW2RT8b1LqOc2AX4l42NBQ&usg=AFQjCNHqQPKF3Kzgf868ZZKWVAFrmKYcaA&sig2=3TUfYY1isIgxcEzOtytixw. Accessed April 2012.

79  Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. A Broken Promise to Our Children: The 1998 State Tobacco Settlement Thirteen Years Later. November 2011.

80 American Nonsmokers Rights Foundation. Percent of U.S. State Populations Covered by 100% Smokefree Air Laws. April 2012.

81  Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. Voters Across The Country Express Strong Support For Smoke-Free Laws. Available at http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/research/factsheets/pdf/0290.pdf. Accessed April 2012.

82  Ramsey, Ross. Fight Over Lawsuits Now Shapes State Politics. The Texas Tribune. March 2012.

83  Texas Medical Association. Proposition 12 Produces Healthy Benefits. February 2012. Available from http://www.texmed.org/tortreform/. Accessed April 2012.

84  ibid

85 ibid

86  Martin, Anne et al. Growth In US Health Spending Remained Slow In 2010; Health Share Of Gross Domestic Product Unchanged From 2009. Health Affairs. 2012. 31(1):1-13.

87  The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Statehealthfacts.org. Texas: Uninsured Population. 2009-2010. Available at http://www.statehealthfacts.org/profileglance.jsp?rgn=45&rgn=1. Accessed April 2012.

88 Medical Group Management Association. Cost Survey 2011

89 Texas Health and Human Services Commission. HHSC Point in Time Count -- Medicaid Enrollment by Month, 2012. Available at http://www.hhsc.state.tx.us/research/MedicaidEnrollment/PIT-Monthly.asp. Accessed April 2012.

90  Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Underinsured. Medicaid Coverage and Spending in Health Reform: National and State‐by‐State Results for Adults at or Below 133% FPL. May 2010. Available at http://www.kff.org/healthreform/upload/Medicaid-Coverage-and-Spending-in-Health-Reform-National-and-State-By-State-Results-for-Adults-at-or-Below-133-FPL.pdf.

91  The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Statehealthfacts.org. Texas: Medicaid Spending. 2009. Available at http://www.statehealthfacts.org/profileind.jsp?sub=47&rgn=45&cat=4. Accessed April 2012.

92  Texas Health and Human Services Commission. Texas Medicaid and CHIP in Perspective. Eighth Edition - January 2011. (The “Pink Book”)

93  Texas Medical Association. Medicaid/CHIP Funding. Available at http://www.texmed.org/template.aspx?id=19658. Accessed April 2012.

94 The Center for Strategic Decision Support, Texas Health and Human Services Commission. April 2012.

95  For illustration only. Medicare payments vary by region of the state.

96 American Medical Association. Now Is The Time To Repeal The SGR. 2012.

97  Texas Medical Association. Survey Results for Texas Medical Association Medicare SGR Survey. August 2011. Available at http://www.texmed.org/WorkArea/linkit.aspx?LinkIdentifier=id&ItemID=22531&libID=20171. Accessed April 2012.

98  Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Focus on Health Reform: Summary of Key Changes to Medicare in 2010 Health Reform Law. Publication #7948-02.

99 U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission filings. Available at http://searchwww.sec.gov/EDGARFSClient/jsp/EDGAR_MainAccess.jsp. Accessed April 2012.

100  Potter, Wendell. Deadly Spin: An Insurance Company Insider Speaks Out on How Corporate PR Is Killing Health Care and Deceiving Americans. Bloomsbury Press. November 2010. Page 72.

101  Potter, Wendell. Deadly Spin: An Insurance Company Insider Speaks Out on How Corporate PR Is Killing Health Care and Deceiving Americans. Bloomsbury Press. November 2010. Page 73.

102  Girion, Lisa. Blue Cross praised employees who dropped sick policyholders, lawmaker says. Los Angeles Times. June 2009.

103  Mattioli, Dana. More Small Firms Drop Health Care. Wall Street Journal. May 2009.

104 Texas Medical Association. 2010 Survey of Texas Physicians: Research Findings. 2010. Available at http://www.texmed.org/Template.aspx?id=16236. Accessed April 2012

105 Dotter, Jay and Manley, Mike. Oregon Department of Consumer and Business Services. 2010 Oregon Workers’ Compensation Premium Rate Ranking Summary. October 2010.

106 Texas Medical Association. TMA March  2012 Survey of Texas Physicians. Preliminary Findings Availability. March  2012

107 Congressional Budget Office. Updated Estimates for the Insurance Coverage Provisions of the Affordable Care Act. March 2012.

108  Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Underinsured. Medicaid Coverage and Spending in Health Reform: National and State‐by‐State Results for Adults at or Below 133% FPL. May 2010.

109  American Association of Medical Colleges. The State of the Physician Workforce: With Medical School Expansion Underway, What’s Next? November 2008.

110 Massachusetts Division of Health Care Finance and  Policy. Health Care in Massachusetts: Key Indicators. May 2009.

111  United States  Census Bureau. Small Area Health Insurance Esti- mates: SAHIE Interactive Data  Tool.  Available at http://www.census.gov/did/www/sahie/data/interactive/. Accessed September 2012.

112 Lazar, Kay. Costly ER Still Draws Many Now Insured. The Boston Globe. October 2008.

113 Kowalczyk, Liz. Emergency Room Visits Grow in Mass. The Boston Globe. July 2010.

114 Roy, Avik. Massachusetts Moves  Toward Health Care Price  Con- trols.  Is America Next? Forbes.com. May 6, 2012.

115 Massachusetts Medical Society. Physician WorkForce Study.  Octo- ber  2010. Available at http://www.massmed.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Search8&template=/CM/HTMLDisplay.cfm&ContentID=36183. Accessed April 2012.

116 The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. State Health Facts.Org. Texas: Hospital Emergency Room Visits per 1,000 Population, 2009. Available from www.statehealthfacts.org/profileind.jsp?cat=8&rgn=45&ind=388. Accessed April 2012.

 


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