Actinic Keratoses, Melanomas, Basal Cell and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

To request items on the following hot topics list, please contact the TMA Knowledge Center by calling (800) 880-1300, ext. 1550 or (512) 370-1550; fax (512) 370-1634, or e-mail .    


Balch CM, Houghton AN, Sober AJ, et al, eds. Cutaneous Melanoma .  St. Louis: Quality Medical Publishing, Inc., 1998.

Brash DA, Bale AE. Molecular Biology of Skin Cancer. In DeVita VT Jr, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology . 6 th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001: 1971-1975.

Cochran AJ, Glaspy JA, Ribas A, et al. Malignant Melanoma of the Skin. In Haskell CM, ed.  Cancer Treatment . 5 th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 2001:  1158-1177.

Herlyn M, Satyamoorthy K. Molecular Biology of Cutaneous Melanoma. In DeVita VT Jr, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology . 6 th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001: 2003-2012.

Leffell DJ, Carucci JA. Management of Skin Cancer. In DeVita VT Jr, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology . 6 th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001: 1976-2002.

Lotze MT, Dallal RM, Kirkwood JM, et al. Cutaneous Melanoma. In DeVita VT Jr, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology . 6 th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001: 2012-2069

Miller SJ, Maloney ME, eds. Cutaneous Oncology: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management . Malden, MA: Blackwell Science, Inc., 1998.

Shellow WVR. Skin Cancer. In Haskell CM, ed.  Cancer Treatment . 5 th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 2001: 1188-1196.



Journal Articles

Actinic Keratoses:  

Actinic keratoses: scientific evaluation and public health implications.  Proceedings of a conference. January 27, 1999 . J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 Jan;42(1 Pt 2):1-30.

Boyd AS, Stasko T, Cameron GS, et al. Histologic features of actinic keratoses in solid organ transplant recipients and healthy controls . J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001 Aug;45(2):217-21.

Cockerell CJ. Histopathology of incipient intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma ("actinic keratosis") . J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 Jan;42(1 Pt 2):11-7.

Dinehart SM. The treatment of actinic keratoses . J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 Jan;42(1 Pt 2):25-8.

Einspahr JG, Nelson MA, Saboda K, et al.  Modulation of biologic endpoints by topical difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), in subjects at high-risk for nonmelanoma skin cancer . Clin Cancer Res. 2002 Jan;8(1):149-55.

Evans C, Cockerell CJ. Actinic keratosis: time to call a spade a spade .  South Med J. 2000 Jul;93(7):734-6. Editorial.

Filipowicz E, Adegboyega P, Sanchez RL, et al. Expression of CD95 (Fas) in sun-exposed human skin and cutaneous carcinomas . Cancer. 2002 Feb 1;94(3):814-9.

Flaxman BA. Actinic keratoses--malignant or not? J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001 Sep;45(3):466-7; discussion 467-9.

Foote JA, Harris RB, Giuliano AR, et al. Predictors for cutaneous basal- and squamous-cell carcinoma among actinically damaged adults . Int J Cancer. 2001 Jan 20;95(1):7-11.

Glogau RG. The risk of progression to invasive disease . J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 Jan;42(1 Pt 2):23-4.

Goldberg LH, Chang JR, Baer SC, et al. Proliferative actinic keratosis: three representative cases . Dermatol Surg. 2000 Jan;26(1):65-9.

Grimaitre M, Etienne A, Fathi M, et al. Topical colchicine therapy for actinic keratoses . Dermatology. 2000;200(4):346-8.

Heaphy MR Jr, Ackerman AB. The nature of solar keratosis: a critical review in historical perspective .  J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 Jul;43(1 Pt 1):138-50.

Helm TN. Photo quiz. Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis . Cutis. 2001 Apr;67(4):286, 296-8.

Jeffes EW, McCullough JL, Weinstein GD, et al. Photodynamic therapy of actinic keratoses with topical aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride and fluorescent blue light . J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001 Jul;45(1):96-104.

Leffell DJ. The scientific basis of skin cancer . J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 Jan;42(1 Pt 2):18-22.

Levy S, Furst K, Chern W. A comparison of the skin permeation of three topical 0.5 percent fluorouracil formulations with that of a 5 percent formulation . Clin Ther. 2001 Jun;23(6):901-7.

Levy S, Furst K, Chern W. A pharmacokinetic evaluation of 0.5 percent and 5 percent fluorouracil topical cream in patients with actinic keratosis . Clin Ther. 2001 Jun;23(6):908-20.

Lincoln EA. Sun-induced skin changes . Prim Care. 2000 Jun;27(2):435-45.

Lober BA, Lober CW. Actinic keratosis is squamous cell carcinoma . South Med J. 2000 Jul;93(7):650-5.

Markham T, Collins P. Topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for extensive scalp actinic keratoses . Br J Dermatol. 2001 Sep;145(3):502-4.

Moy RL. Clinical presentation of actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinoma . J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 Jan;42(1 Pt 2):8-10.

Rivers JK, Arlette J, Shear N, et al. Topical treatment of actinic keratoses with 3.0 percent diclofenac in 2.5 percent hyaluronan gel . Br J Dermatol. 2002 Jan;146(1):94-100.

Salasche SJ. Epidemiology of actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinoma . J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 Jan;42(1 Pt 2):4-7.

Stockfleth E, Meyer T, Benninghoff B, et al. Successful treatment of actinic keratosis with imiquimod cream 5 percent: a report of six cases . Br J Dermatol. 2001 May; 144(5): 1050-3.

Varma S, Wilson H, Kurwa HA, et al. Bowen's disease, solar keratoses and superficial basal cell carcinomas treated by photodynamic therapy using a large-field incoherent light source . Br J Dermatol. 2001 Mar;144(3):567-74.

Vural P, Erzengin D, Canbaz M, et al. Nitric oxide and endothelin-1,2 in actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma: changes in nitric oxide/endothelin ratio . Int J Dermatol. 2001 Nov;40(11):704-8.

Wolf JE Jr, Taylor JR, Tschen E, et al. Topical 3.0 percent diclofenac in 2.5 percent hyaluronan gel in the treatment of actinic keratoses . Int J Dermatol. 2001 Nov;40 (11):709-13.

Basal Cell Carcinoma:  

Baas P, Saarnak AE, Oppelaar H, et al. Photodynamic therapy with meta-tetrahydroxyphenylchlorin for basal cell carcinoma: a phase I/II study . Br J Dermatol. 2001 Jul;145(1):75-8.

Bogdanov-Berezovsky A, Cohen A, Glesinger R, et al. Clinical and pathological findings in reexcision of incompletely excised basal cell carcinomas . Ann Plast Surg. 2001 Sep;47(3):299-302.

Bower CP, Lear JT, de Berker DA. Basal cell carcinoma follow-up practices by dermatologists: a national survey . Br J Dermatol. 2001 Dec;145(6):949-56.

Brodell RT, Wagamon K. The persistent nonhealing ulcer. Could it be basal cell carcinoma? Postgrad Med. 2001 Jan;109(1):29-32.

Corona R, Dogliotti E, D'Errico M, et al. Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma in a Mediterranean population: role of recreational sun exposure early in life . Arch Dermatol. 2001 Sep;137(9):1162-8.

Epstein E Jr. Genetic determinants of basal cell carcinoma risk . Med Pediatr Oncol. 2001 May;36(5):555-8.

Fleischer AB Jr, Feldman SR, Barlow JO, et al. The specialty of the treating physician affects the likelihood of tumor-free resection margins for basal cell carcinoma: results from a multi-institutional retrospective study . J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001 Feb;44(2):224-30.

Leman JA, McHenry PM. Basal cell carcinoma: still an enigma . Arch Dermatol. 2001 Sep;137(9):1239-40.

LeSueur BW, Silvis NG, Hansen RC. Basal cell carcinoma in children: report of 3 cases . Arch Dermatol. 2000 Mar;136(3):370-2.

Marks R, Gebauer K, Shumack S, et al. Imiquimod 5 percent cream in the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma: results of a multicenter 6-week dose-response trial . J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001 May;44(5):807-13.

Morton CA. Treating basal cell carcinoma: has photodynamic therapy come of age? Br J Dermatol. 2001 Jul;145(1):1-2.

Ramachandran S, Fryer AA, Smith AG, et al. Basal cell carcinoma . Cancer. 2000 Sep 1;89(5):1012-8.

Ramachandran S, Fryer AA, Smith A, et al. Cutaneous basal cell carcinomas: distinct host factors are associated with the development of tumors on the trunk and on the head and neck . Cancer. 2001 Jul 15;92(2):354-8.

Soler AM, Warloe T, Berner A, et al. A follow-up study of recurrence and cosmesis in completely responding superficial and nodular basal cell carcinomas treated with methyl 5-aminolaevulinate-based photodynamic therapy alone and with prior curettage . Br J Dermatol. 2001 Sep;145(3):467-71.

Telfer NR, Colver GB, Bowers PW. Guidelines for the management of basal cell carcinoma. British Association of Dermatologists . Br J Dermatol. 1999 Sep;141(3):415-23.

Thissen MR, Neumann MH, Schouten LJ. A systematic review of treatment modalities for primary basal cell carcinomas . Arch Dermatol. 1999 Oct;135(10):1177-83.

Wang I, Bendsoe N, Klinteberg CA, et al. Photodynamic therapy vs. cryosurgery of basal cell carcinomas: results of a phase III clinical trial . Br J Dermatol. 2001 Apr;144(4):832-40.

Wennberg AM. Basal cell carcinoma--new aspects of diagnosis and treatment . Acta Derm Venereol Suppl (Stockh). 2000;209:5-25.


Atzpodien J, Neuber K, Kamanabrou D, et al. Combination chemotherapy with or without s.c. IL-2 and IFN-alpha: results of a prospectively randomized trial of the Cooperative Advanced Malignant Melanoma Chemoimmunotherapy Group (ACIMM) . Br J Cancer. 2002 Jan 21;86(2):179-84.

Balch CM, Buzaid AC, Soong SJ, et al. Final version of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for cutaneous melanoma . J Clin Oncol. 2001 Aug 15;19(16):3635-48.

Balch CM, Soong SJ, Gershenwald JE, et al. Prognostic factors analysis of 17,600 melanoma patients: validation of the American Joint Committee on Cancer melanoma staging system . J Clin Oncol. 2001 Aug 15;19(16):3622-34.

Bellows CF, Belafsky P, Fortgang IS, et al. Melanoma in African-Americans: trends in biological behavior and clinical characteristics over two decades . J Surg Oncol. 2001 Sep;78(1):10-6.

Bonaccorsi P, Ansel JC, Armstrong CA. Management of high-risk melanoma . Dermatol Clin. 2001 Oct;19(4):727-35.

Buzaid AC, Atkins M. Practical guidelines for the management of biochemotherapy-related toxicity in melanoma . Clin Cancer Res. 2001 Sep;7(9):2611-9.

Chen SC, Bravata DM, Weil E, et al. A comparison of dermatologists' and primary care physicians' accuracy in diagnosing melanoma: a systematic review .  Arch Dermatol. 2001 Dec;137(12):1627-34.

Dubois RW, Swetter SM, Atkins M, et al. Developing indications for the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy and adjuvant high-dose interferon alfa-2b in melanoma .  Arch Dermatol. 2001 Sep;137(9):1217-24.

Eggermont AM. The role interferon-alpha in malignant melanoma remains to be defined .  Eur J Cancer. 2001 Nov;37(17):2147-53.

Eicher SA, Clayman GL, Myers JN, et al. A prospective study of intraoperative lymphatic mapping for head and neck cutaneous melanoma .  Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002 Mar;128(3):241-6.

Goldstein AM, Tucker MA. Genetic epidemiology of cutaneous melanoma: a global perspective . Arch Dermatol. 2001 Nov;137(11):1493-6.

Grichnik JM. Difficult early melanomas . Dermatol Clin. 2001 Apr;19(2):319-25.

Hazard LJ, Sause WT, Noyes RD. Combined adjuvant radiation and interferon-alpha 2B therapy in high-risk melanoma patients: the potential for increased radiation toxicity . Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002 Mar 1;52(3):796-800.

Jemal A, Devesa SS, Hartge P, et al. Recent trends in cutaneous melanoma incidence among whites in the United States . J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001 May 2;93(9):678-83.

Kanzler MH, Mraz-Gernhard S. Primary cutaneous malignant melanoma and its precursor lesions: diagnostic and therapeutic overview . J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001 Aug;45(2):260-76.

Kashani-Sabet M, Sagebiel RW, Ferreira CM, et al. Tumor vascularity in the prognostic assessment of primary cutaneous melanoma . J Clin Oncol. 2002 Apr 1;20(7):1826-31.

Kenet RO, Kenet BJ. Risk stratification. A practical approach to using epiluminescence microscopy/dermoscopy in melanoma screening . Dermatol Clin. 2001 Apr;19(2):327-35.

Kilbridge KL, Cole BF, Kirkwood JM, et al. Quality-of-life-adjusted survival analysis of high-dose adjuvant interferon alpha-2b for high-risk melanoma patients using intergroup clinical trial data . J Clin Oncol. 2002 Mar 1;20(5):1311-8.

Landi MT, Baccarelli A, Tarone RE, et al. DNA repair, dysplastic nevi, and sunlight sensitivity in the development of cutaneous malignant melanoma . J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 Jan 16;94(2):94-101.

Martinez JC, Otley CC. The management of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer: a review for the primary care physician . Mayo Clin Proc. 2001 Dec;76(12):1253-65.

Reintgen D, Cruse CW, Atkins M. Cutaneous malignant melanoma . Clin Dermatol. 2001 May-Jun;19(3):253-61.

Roberts DL, Anstey AV, Barlow RJ, et al. U.K. guidelines for the management of cutaneous melanoma . Br J Dermatol. 2002 Jan;146(1):7-17.

Russell-Jones R, Acland K. Sentinel node biopsy in the management of malignant melanoma . Clin Exp Dermatol. 2001 Sep;26(6):463-8.

Salti GI, Kansagra A, Warso MA, et al. Clinical node-negative thick melanoma . Arch Surg. 2002 Mar;137(3):291-5.

Silverberg NB. Update on malignant melanoma in children . Cutis. 2001 May;67(5): 393-6.

Sober AJ, Chuang TY, Duvic M, et al. Guidelines of care for primary cutaneous melanoma . J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001 Oct;45(4):579-86.

Stojadinovic A, Allen PJ, Clary BM, et al. Value of frozen-section analysis of sentinel lymph nodes for primary cutaneous malignant melanoma . Ann Surg. 2002 Jan; 235(1):92-8.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma:  

Alam M, Ratner D. Cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma .  N Engl J Med. 2001 Mar 29; 344(13):975-83.

Bruce AJ, Brodland DG. Overview of skin cancer detection and prevention for the primary care physician . Mayo Clin Proc. 2000 May;75(5):491-500.

Chen JG, Fleischer AB Jr, Smith ED, et al. Cost of nonmelanoma skin cancer treatment in the United States . Dermatol Surg. 2001 Dec;27(12):1035-8.

Cohen EE, Vokes EE. Searching for a standard . J Clin Oncol. 2002 Jan 15;20(2):359-61.

Dupree MT, Kiteley RA, Weismantle K, et al. Radiation therapy for Bowen's disease: lessons for lesions of the lower extremity . J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001 Sep;45(3):401-4.

Dwyer T, Blizzard L, Ashbolt R, et al. Cutaneous melanin density of Caucasians measured by spectrophotometry and risk of malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin . Am J Epidemiol. 2002 Apr 1; 155(7):614-21.

Garner KL, Rodney WM. Basal and squamous cell carcinoma . Prim Care. 2000 Jun; 27(2):447-58.

Helfand M, Mahon SM, Eden KB, et al. Screening for skin cancer . Am J Prev Med. 2001 Apr;20(3 Suppl):47-58.

Limmer BL. Nonmelanoma skin cancer: today's epidemic . Tex Med. 2001 Feb;97(2): 56-8.

Locke J, Karimpour S, Young G, et al. Radiotherapy for epithelial skin cancer . Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2001 Nov 1;51(3):748-55.

Marcil I, Stern RS. Risk of developing a subsequent nonmelanoma skin cancer in patients with a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer: a critical review of the literature and meta-analysis . Arch Dermatol. 2000 Dec;136(12):1524-30.

Marcil I, Stern RS. Squamous-cell cancer of the skin in patients given PUVA and ciclosporin: nested cohort crossover study . Lancet. 2001 Sep 29;358(9287):1042-5.

Mondragon RM, Barrett TL. Current concepts: the use of immunoperoxidase techniques in mohs micrographic surgery . J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 Jul;43(1 Pt 1):66-71.

Morton CA, Whitehurst C, McColl JH, et al. Photodynamic therapy for large or multiple patches of Bowen disease and basal cell carcinoma . Arch Dermatol. 2001 Mar;137(3):319-24.

Motley R, Kersey P, Lawrence C. Multiprofessional guidelines for the management of the patient with primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma . Br J Dermatol. 2002 Jan;146(1):18-25.

Shin DM, Glisson BS, Khuri FR, et al. Phase II and biologic study of interferon alfa, retinoic acid, and cisplatin in advanced squamous skin cancer . J Clin Oncol. 2002 Jan 15;20(2):364-70.

Tsao H. Genetics of nonmelanoma skin cancer . Arch Dermatol. 2001 Nov;137(11): 1486-92.

Urosevic M, Dummer R. Immunotherapy for nonmelanoma skin cancer: does it have a future? Cancer. 2002 Jan 15;94(2):477-85.

Vainio H, Miller AB, Bianchini F. An international evaluation of the cancer-preventive potential of sunscreens . Int J Cancer. 2000 Dec 1;88(5):838-42.

Vine JE. Skin cancer update. Treatment alternatives for basal-cell and squamous-cell carcinoma . N J Med. 2001 May;98(5):35-7.

Vuyk HD, Lohuis PJ. Mohs micrographic surgery for facial skin cancer . Clin Otolaryngol. 2001 Aug;26(4):265-73.

Weisberg NK, Bertagnolli MM, Becker DS. Combined sentinel lymphadenectomy and mohs micrographic surgery for high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma . J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 Sep;43(3):483-8.

Williams LS, Mancuso AA, Mendenhall WM. Perineural spread of cutaneous squamous and basal cell carcinoma: CT and MR detection and its impact on patient management and prognosis . Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2001 Mar 15;49(4):1061-9.



Internet Sites

The following are links to databases and organizations that provide resources for health care professionals and patients looking for accurate information about the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of skin cancer.

Texas Medical Association's Physician Oncology Education Program sponsors a Skin Cancer: Prevention/Early Detection with ordering information for training modules for healthcare professionals and teachers and posters and guidebooks for families and patients.


Cancer Care at is a national non-profit organization that provides free professional help to people with all cancers through counseling, education, information and referral, and direct financial assistance.

Cancer Gateway of Texas at is an Internet portal to cancer-related information, resources, and publications. at is the Web site of the National Cancer Institute, the federal government's principal agency for cancer research. Patients and their loved ones, advocates, health professionals, researchers, and anyone else interested in cancer will find a wide range of authoritative cancer information.

Clinical Trials . .is the National Institute of Health's database of ongoing clinical trials.  To get to skin cancer trials, select "Browse by Condition" on the home page, then select "Alphabetically," and on the next screen click on "S," then on "Skin Neoplasms."

MedlinePlus at highlights the latest news, clinical trials, diagnosis and symptoms, treatment, and Spanish language brochures on skin cancer.

National Comprehensive Cancer Network at , an alliance of the world's leading cancer centers, enhances the leadership role of member institutions in the evolving managed care environment.

National Skin Cancer Prevention Education Program at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at features information about risk, prevention techniques, and the CDC's efforts to prevent and educate people about skin cancer

OncoLink at the University of Pennsylvania Cancer Center at provides comprehensive information about specific types of cancer, updates on cancer treatments, and news about research advances.

Skin Cancer and Benign Tumor Image Atlas hosted by the Loyola University Medical Education Network at provides excellent online images of skin cancers by histology and site.

Skin Cancer Foundation at  is concerned exclusively with the world's most common malignancy -- cancer of the skin.

The Skin Cancer Resources Directory at provides links to both clinical and patient education online resources from the United States, Great Britain, and Australia.

The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center at includes practice guidelines, treatment options, and advice for newly diagnosed patients with skin cancer.